What can funders do?

Funding bodies have similar options to journals, but arguably even more room to promote open practices because of the dependence of so many researchers on funding:

TOP (Transparency and Openness Promotion)

Eight guidelines suitable for a wide range of empirical disciplines. These guidelines can be adopted singly or in any combination and at any of three levels of stringency. Funding bodies can use TOP as a guideline for adopting their own transparency standards which they can suggest to or require from grantees.

Funding as an incentive

Funding bodies can also use TOP as a guide for designing incentives for potential grantees. For instance, a funding body could add transparency standards to proposal evaluation criteria such that researchers gain preference for demonstrating a history of specified transparency practices. Funders might also preferentially fund projects for which the background research is well-replicated and transparent. Funders could also allocate a portion of funding to close replications, or require close replication as a portion of proposals for new work.